Top 10 Treatments proven to Fight COVID-19 (June 2022)

The World Health Organization said it is tracking a few dozen cases of two new sub-variants of the highly transmissible Omicron strain of the coronavirus to assess whether they are more infectious or dangerous.

It has added BA.4 and BA.5, sister variants of the original BA.1 Omicron variant, to its list for monitoring. It is already tracking BA.1 and BA.2 - now globally dominant - as well as BA.1.1 and BA.3.

The WHO said it had begun tracking them because of their "additional mutations that need to be further studied to understand their impact on immune escape potential".

Viruses mutate all the time but only some mutations affect their ability to spread or evade prior immunity from vaccination or infection, or the severity of disease they cause.

For instance, BA.2 now represents nearly 94% of all sequenced cases and is more transmissible than its siblings, but the evidence so far suggests it is no more likely to cause severe disease.

Only a few dozen cases of BA.4 and BA.5 have been reported to the global GISAID database, according to WHO. (Source)

The World Health Organisation (WHO) said that evolving evidence suggests that an Omicron BA.1 infection offers only limited protection against symptomatic disease caused by the emerging sub-lineages of Omicron. The WHO, with the support of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization and its Covid-19 Vaccines Working Group, is reviewing the emerging evidence on the increasing seroprevalence rates against SARS-CoV-2 globally.

The health watchdog is also keeping a watch on the characteristics and potential benefits of hybrid immunity. Hybrid immunity is defined as immune protection in individuals who have had one or more doses of a Covid-19 vaccine and experienced at least one SARS-CoV-2 infection before or after the initiation of vaccination.

This statement from WHO reflects the current understanding of hybrid immunity and highlights the gaps in evidence and potential implications for vaccination schedules and strategies.
As per WHO, current evidence suggests that immune protection against severe outcomes due to infection and vaccination is more robust than that due to infection, or vaccination alone. This is based on infections with the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 or pre-Omicron VOCs (Variant of Concerns).

WHO said, "The duration of protection from hybrid immunity has not been fully characterized yet and it is unclear whether hybrid immunity will continue to provide strong protection against new variants. Emerging evidence suggests that Omicron infection offers limited protection against re-infection with Omicron sub-lineages. Irrespective of infection history, achieving high primary vaccine series coverage remains the foremost priority." (Source)

Experimental antiviral pills - such as Pfizer Inc's (PFE.N) Paxlovid and Merck & Co Inc's (MRK.N) molnupiravir - target parts of the virus that are not changed in Omicron. They will work as effectively against the new variant because these drugs do not target the spike protein – they work by stopping the virus from replicating. However, there is a bigger risk that monoclonal antibodies, such as Regeneron’s treatment, could fail or partially fail because they target parts of the virus that will have mutated. 


Theoretically, drugs that target parts of the virus that are not changed in Omicron such as antivirals like Molnupiravir and Paxlovid might still work. As mentioned above, they will work as effectively against the new variant because these drugs do not target the spike protein – they work by stopping the virus from replicating. 

Ivermectin, has multiple mode of actions against the COVID-19 virus in general (not Omicron variant) as listed and explained in this review paper.

A schematic of the key cellular and biomolecular interactions between Ivermectin, host cell, and SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 pathogenesis and prevention of complications.

Top 10 Treatments proven to Fight COVID-19

Irrespective of the type of variant, early treatment is more effective than late treatment or no treatment, as shown in the figure below:

The C19early.com website has continuously updated the evidence-based research on early COVID-19 treatments since June 2020. The website is so exhaustively comprehensive that it could be considered a journal in itself, produced by a team of competent, committed editors.

Although this singular resource has been developed and posted anonymously, one observer commented on Reddit, “It doesn’t really matter who built it, IMO. All studies are referenced/linked.”

As of June 2022, it has more than 1,800 COVID-19 treatment studies published, covering more than 800 treatments. New ones are being added almost on a daily basis.

The studies for COVID’s readily-available, low-cost, and evidence-based early treatments are divided into sections: Ivermectin, Proxalutamide, Budesonide, Vitamin D, Quercetin, Hydroxychloroquine, Vitamin C, Zinc and many more.

A comprehensive database and global list of COVID-19 treatment studies and outcomes, divided into early treatment and late treatment results, and complete with links and abstracts, is available at this site.

The project has kept up with the recent highly encouraging work on many treatments for COVID-19. Each of these treatment links can be opened to reveal a gold mine of further information.

Most doctors know the need to focus now on early treatment as the most immediate and practical way to reduce hospitalisations, death and risk of long haul. This is your guide to help you know your options, and to use with your personal physician.

The website has a long list of treatments and a gold mine of information. That said, it could be overwhelming for an average reader. Therefore, we have summarised and curated the top 10 most important treatments below.

Treatment league table

1. Ivermectin and COVID-19

Even with successful vaccines and other preventable measures in place, the availability of outpatient treatments with solid evidence has a critical role to play in ending this pandemic.

The use of ivermectin for COVID-19 has been controversial and slapped with 'misinformation' labels for the past 2 years. Ivermectin is a medication widely used in low- and middle-income countries to treat parasitic worm infections in adults and children. It’s been used for decades for this purpose by over 3.7 billion people, and is considered safe and effective. It has an increasing list of indications due to its antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties, and is included on the WHO’s Model List of Essential Medicines.

Updates: 
Some doctors and media channels argue that there is very little evidence to support the use of ivermectin to treat COVID-19. However, you can find a summary of more than 80 studies on ivermectin done by more than 800 authors from c19ivermectin.com (constantly updated); in addition, a meta-analysis of all studies can be found at ivmeta.com (constantly updated). For adoption and regulatory status of ivermectin globally, check out "Countries using Ivermectin".

Based on the treatment league table above, it's also obvious why ivermectin is selected in our top 10 list.

Concerns and Cautions:
  • Ivermectin has a number of potentially serious drug-drug interactions. Please check for potential drug interaction at Ivermectin Drug Interactions - Drugs.com. The most important drug interactions occur with cyclosporin, tacrolimus, anti-retroviral drugs, and certain anti-fungal drugs. 
  • Ivermectin is also lipophilic and therefore, bioavailability is maximised on a full stomach; or best to be taken with meal.

2. Dietary Supplements (Vitamin D, C, Black Seed Oil, Zinc, Quercetin, Vitamin A and Melatonin) and COVID-19 

Based on the AAPS (Association of American Physicians and Surgeons) algorithm or flowchart below, nutraceuticals are the first line treatment for mild COVID-19 patients.


Quercetin, Hydroxychloroquine, EGCG and Zinc are among the handful of COVID-19 treatments that are being studied as candidates that might influence the outcome in the prevention and management of COVID-19. Hydroxychloroquine, Quercetin and EGCG (EpiGalloCatechin Gallate) are all zinc ionophores. Meaning they all transport zinc into the cells.

The combination of quercetin, zinc, vitamin D, vitamin C and melatonin offer a high virus inhibiting and anti-inflammatory potential with a valuable degree of safety at a time of great uncertainty.

That said, based on the evidence on C19Early database, a combination of vitamin D, quercetin, black seed oil, vitamin A, curcumin and melatonin might even offer a greater probability of improvement if given as early treatment.
 
Quercetin, zinc, vitamin D and C are all part of the FLCCC I-MASK+ protocol and Zelenko Protocol.

Nutrients and supplements are safer alternatives especially if your risk is low e.g. age below 50 and no other chronic illness. Discuss with your doctor on the benefit vs risk for each treatment. If you are on multiple medications, be aware of supplement-drug interactions that might enhance the possibilities of adverse effects.

However, if your risk is high e.g. age above 60, hypertensive, diabetic and obese; you might wish to consult a doctor and discuss more potent alternatives in the FLCCC I-MASK+ protocol.
Note: The dosages for prevention and treatment protocols are different as the risks and benefits are different for different situations. Prevention protocol is for those who are not COVID-19 positive and the treatment protocol is for those who are COVID-19 positive. Do take note that 'early' treatment is important for the best possible outcome.

3. Paxlovid and COVID-19

U.S. health regulators authorized the first oral pill against COVID-19 in December 2021 (Associated Press), a Pfizer drug that Americans will be able to take at home to head off the worst effects of the virus.

Authorization was based on results from EPIC-HR, a randomized, placebo-controlled treatment trial in adult outpatients with mild-to-moderate COVID who were at high risk for progression to severe disease.

The latest (last updated: April 8, 2022) NIH guidelines recommended Paxlovid as the no. 1 preferred therapy for non-hospitalized patients.

Locations in the USA that may have Paxlovid available can be found at: https://covid-19-therapeutics-locator-dhhs.hub.arcgis.com.

The drug, Paxlovid (ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir), is a faster, cheaper way to treat early COVID-19 infections, though initial supplies will be extremely limited. All of the previously authorised drugs against the disease require an IV (intravenous) or an injection.

Paxlovid is also no. 9 in this treatment league table:

Treatment league table

“The efficacy is high, the side effects are low and it’s oral. It checks all the boxes,” said Dr. Gregory Poland of the Mayo Clinic. “You’re looking at a 90% decreased risk of hospitalization and death in a high-risk group — that’s stunning.”

The Food and Drug Administration authorized Pfizer’s drug for adults and children ages 12 and older with a positive COVID-19 test and early symptoms who face the highest risks of hospitalization. That includes older people and those with conditions like obesity and heart disease. Children eligible for the drug must weigh at least 88 pounds (40 kilograms).

The pills from both Pfizer and Merck are expected to be effective against omicron because they don’t target the spike protein where most of the variant’s worrisome mutations reside.

Pfizer currently has 180,000 treatment courses available worldwide, with roughly 60,000 to 70,000 allocated to the U.S. Federal health officials are expected to ration early shipments to the hardest hit parts of the country. Pfizer said the small supply is due to the manufacturing time — currently about nine months. The company says it can halve production time next year.

The U.S. government has agreed to purchase enough Paxlovid to treat 10 million people. Pfizer says it’s on track to produce 80 million courses globally next year, under contracts with the U.K., Australia and other nations.

Health experts agree that vaccination remains the best way to protect against COVID-19. But with roughly 40 million American adults still unvaccinated, effective drugs will be critical to blunting the current and future waves of infection.

The U.S. is now reporting more than 140,000 new infections daily and federal officials warn that the omicron variant could send case counts soaring. Omicron has already whipped across the country to become the dominant strain, federal officials confirmed earlier this week.

Against that backdrop, experts warn that Paxlovid’s initial impact could be limited.

For more than a year, biotech-engineered antibody drugs have been the go-to treatments for COVID-19. But they are expensive, hard to produce and require an injection or infusion, typically given at a hospital or clinic. Also, laboratory testing suggests the two leading antibody drugs (from Regeneron and Eli Lilly) used in the U.S. aren’t effective against omicron.

Pfizer’s pill comes with its own challenges.

Patients will need a positive COVID-19 test to get a prescription. And Paxlovid has only proven effective if given within five days of symptoms appearing. With testing supplies stretched, experts worry it may be unrealistic for patients to self-diagnose, get tested, see a physician and pick up a prescription within that narrow window.

“If you go outside that window of time I fully expect the effectiveness of this drug is going to fall,” said Andrew Pekosz, a Johns Hopkins University virologist.

The FDA based its decision on company results from a 2,250-patient trial that showed the pill cut hospitalizations and deaths by 89% when given to people with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 within three days of symptoms. Less than 1% of patients taking the drug were hospitalized and none died at the end of the 30-day study period, compared with 6.5% of patients hospitalized in the group getting a dummy pill, which included nine deaths.

Pfizer’s drug is part of a decades-old family of antiviral drugs known as protease inhibitors, which revolutionized the treatment of HIV and hepatitis C. The drugs block a key enzyme which viruses need to multiply in the human body.

How much will Paxlovid cost? 

The U.S. will pay about $500 for each course of Pfizer’s treatment, which consists of three pills taken twice a day for five days. Two of the pills are Paxlovid and the third is a different antiviral that helps boost levels of the main drug in the body.
This statement contains the Panel’s recommendations for treating these non-hospitalized patients using the currently available therapies.

The Panel’s recommendations take into account the efficacies of these drugs and the high prevalence of the Omicron VOC. When resources are limited, therapy should be prioritized for patients who are at the highest risk of progressing to severe COVID-19.

The Panel’s current outpatient treatment recommendations are as follows (in order of preference):

Preferred Therapies
  • Paxlovid (nirmatrelvir 300 mg plus ritonavir 100 mg) orally twice daily for 5 days
  • Remdesivir 200 mg IV on Day 1 followed by remdesivir 100 mg IV on Days 2 and 3
Alternative Therapies
For use only when neither of the preferred therapies are available, feasible to use, or clinically appropriate. Listed in alphabetical order:
  • Bebtelovimab (monoclonal antibody from Eli Lilly)
  • Molnupiravir 800 mg orally twice daily for 5 days
Notes: 
  • Bebtelovimab is active in vitro against all circulating Omicron subvariants, but there are no clinical efficacy data from placebo-controlled trials that evaluated the use of bebtelovimab in patients who are at high risk of progressing to severe COVID-19. Therefore, bebtelovimab should be used only when the preferred treatment options are not available, feasible to use, or clinically appropriate.
  • According to GoodRx Health (Jan 26, 2022): Studies suggest that Paxlovid can lower the risk of severe COVID-19 for high-risk people by almost 90%. Studies suggest molnupiravir can lower this risk by about 30% in high risk people.

New Paxlovid Dose Pack Author​ized by FDA

On April 14, 2022, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) revised the Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the COVID-19 oral antiviral therapeutic Paxlovid to authorize an additional dose pack presentation with appropriate dosing for patients with moderate renal impairment within the scope of the EUA. As a result, Paxlovid will soon be available in two package presentations:
  1. ​The standard packaging that is currently in distribution: 300 mg nirmatrelvir;100 mg ritonavir - Each carton contains 30 tablets divided in 5 daily-dose blister cards. Each blister card contains 4 nirmatrelvir tablets (150 mg each) and 2 ritonavir tablets (100 mg each). Nirmatrelvir tablets and ritonavir tablets are supplied in separate blister cavities within the same child-resistant blister card.
  2. The new packaging option that will be in distribution later this month: 150 mg nirmatrelvir; 100 mg ritonavir - Each carton contains 20 tablets divided in 5 daily-dose blister cards. Each blister card contains 2 nirmatrelvir tablets (150 mg each) and 2 ritonavir tablets (100 mg each). Nirmatrelvir tablets and ritonavir tablets are supplied in separate blister cavities within the same child-resistant blister card.
The updated provider Fact SheetLetter of Authorization, and Dear Healthcare Provider Letter​ are available for reference.

Precaution: PAXLOVID is not recommended (the appropriate dose has not been determined) in patients with severe renal impairment (<30 mL/min). (Source)

4. Hydroxychloroquine and COVID-19

Historically, hydroxychloroquine was discovered during efforts to synthesize alternatives to quinine as anti-malarials. Is quinine similar to hydroxychloroquine? Hydroxychloroquine and quinine are both anti-malarial drugs. However, hydroxychloroquine is not the same as quinine as hydroxychloroquine is a synthetic drug while quinine is a naturally occurring compound found in cinchona bark. 

Quinine, was first recognized as a potent antimalarial agent hundreds of years ago. Since then, the beneficial effects of quinine and its more advanced synthetic forms, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, have been increasingly recognized in a myriad of other diseases in addition to malaria.

Is quercetin same as quinine? No. Quercetin is a phytonutrient whereas quinine is a naturally occurring compound found in cinchona bark and was used as an antimalarial agent. However, both quercetin and quinine are known to have zinc ionophore properties i.e. they transport zinc into the cells. 

Hydroxychloroquine, developed in the 1950s from chloroquine, an old anti-malarial drug, is registered in around 60 countries under trade names such as Plaquenil, Quensyl and Plaquinol.
 
Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of Chloroquine is a widely used medication by people with lupus or arthritis. 

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is not effective when used very late with high dosages over a long period (RECOVERY/SOLIDARITY), effectiveness improves with earlier usage and improved dosing. Early treatment consistently shows positive effects. Negative evaluations typically ignore treatment time, often focusing on a subset of late stage studies.

Here’s a chart from c19early.com that shows that hydroxychloroquine performs better than ivermectin when given as early treatment in terms of risk reduction of dying from COVID-19:


The overall improvement for hydroxychloroquine is better than ivermectin (for early treatment); 72 % vs 43 % in terms of death rate. Importantly, hydroxychloroquine needs to be given 'early'.

The latest FLCCC I-MASK protocol has also incorporated hydroxychloroquine as part of the prevention and treatment protocols:


Specifically, they recommend hydroxychloroquine (preferred for Omicron) and ivermectin as first line anti-viral agents:
  • Ivermectin: 0.4–0.6 mg/kg per dose (take with or after meals) — one dose daily, take for 5 days or until recovered. (Find a Doctor). Use upper dose range if:  1) in regions with more aggressive variants (e.g. Delta); 2) treatment started on or after day 5 of symptoms or in pulmonary phase; or 3) multiple comorbidities/risk factors. (Ref)
  • Hydroxychloroquine (preferred for Omicron): 200mg PO twice daily; take for 5 days or until recovered. (Find a Doctor)

Most of the other component treatments in the I-MASK+ protocol have various mode of actions and may not be affected by the changes in the Omicron variant spike protein.

The evidence tracking on Hydroxychloroquine versus COVID-19 is available at c19hcq.com (constantly updated).

5. Povidone Iodine and Mouthwash

Due to the presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the oral gingival epithelium and salivary glands, the human oral cavity may act as a reservoir for SARS-CoV-2. The ACE2 present on the host cell membrane acts as the primary entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Evidence indicates that the saliva of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals contains high amounts of viral RNA and that aerosols formed from the saliva can act as a potential vector for viral transmission.

Povidone iodine (PVP-I) is an antiseptic that has been used for over 150 years. It's already proven that different concentration of PVP-I can deactivate COVID-19 virus. 

In a pilot primary prevention study in Singapore, a povidone-iodine throat spray administered three times daily proved to be highly effective in reducing the risk of laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.

The antiseptic povidone-iodine has immediate virucidal effects against COVID-19 virus. There are 12 published studies on povidone-iodine for COVID-19 (c19pvpi.com) with one study showing an 88% lower risk of death, if given early.

Povidone-iodine is no. 4 in this COVID-19 treatment league table for early treatment:


6. Curcumin and Turmeric - Anti-inflammatory and anti-viral

Curcumin, a yellow carotenoid from turmeric, is well known for its anti-inflammatory and free radical-scavenging effects. 

There are more than 15 studies of curcumin in COVID-19 published. And the results are promising.


Curcumin also acts as natural zinc ionophores and can promote the cellular uptake of zinc and can be used with zinc to increase the effectiveness of these compounds in the inhibition of the virus (Ref).

Curcumin has been demonstrated (Ref) to suppress several inflammatory cytokines and mediators of their release such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1, IL-8 and nitric oxide synthase.

7. NAC and Glutathione - Anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant

N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a precursor to glutathione. It is an antioxidant and increases glutathione levels in the body (Source). NAC has mucolytic activity, so it helps reduce respiratory mucus levels. Laboratory research suggests that NAC might boost immune system function and suppress viral replication. NAC also decreases levels of interleukin-6 and has other anti-inflammatory effects.

Much of the research on NAC has used an inhaled, liquid form of this compound. This form—which is classified as a drug, not a dietary supplement—is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a mucolytic agent and for decreasing respiratory secretion viscosity (Source). Products containing NAC are also sold as dietary supplements.

NAC and COVID-19

Considering many COVID-19 cases involve blood clots in addition to excessive oxidative stress, and NAC effectively addresses both and therefore NAC should be seriously included in standard of care for COVID-19.
 
For a compilation of more than 10 studies of NAC and COVID-19, check out the list of studies here (constantly updated).


However, in terms of early treatment, the effectiveness is not as impressive as the other natural alternatives i.e. quercetin, black seed oil and vitamin A; with an average improvement of more than 50%.

That said, NAC is a natural alternative for aspirin and an over-the-counter supplement that both prevents blood clots and breaks up existing ones i.e. anticoagulant effects.

Studies have shown that NAC may protect against coagulation problems associated with COVID-19, as it has both anticoagulant (source) and thrombolytic effects (source), meaning it may both prevent clots and break up clots that have already formed.

Consider taking around 500 milligrams/day of NAC, as it helps prevent blood clots and is a precursor for your body to produce the important antioxidant glutathione.

Why are some retailers and Amazon no longer selling NAC? The US FDA made it clear in 2020 that it considers NAC to be a drug and not a dietary supplement, so, for legal reasons, some companies have stopped selling it in United States.
Foods that have a positive impact on glutathione production include cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, green tea, curcumin, rosemary and milk thistle. Getting quality sleep may also help.

NAC (N-Acetyl Cysteine) vs Glutathione
N-acetyl L-cysteine (NAC), as a precursor of glutathione, helps to replenish intracellular glutathione, a vital cellular antioxidant. NAC has a low molecular weight and is well absorbed via oral administration as compared to glutathione.

NAC may also protect against coagulation problems associated with COVID-19, as it counteracts hypercoagulation and breaks down blood clots.

Glutathione and Zinc

To improve your glutathione, you need zinc, and zinc in combination with hydroxychloroquine (a zinc ionophore or zinc transporter) has been shown effective in the treatment of COVID-19.

Glutathione and Selenium

Selenium is also important, as some of the enzymes involved in glutathione production are selenium-dependent.

Safety: As an FDA-approved drug, the safety profile of NAC has been evaluated (Source). Reported side effects of oral NAC include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, indigestion, and epigastric discomfort. No safety concerns have been reported for products labeled as dietary supplements that contain NAC. (Source)

NAC Updates in US
  • On April 21, 2022 US FDA announced the issuance of draft guidance on FDA’s policy regarding dietary supplements containing N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). The guidance details the agency’s intent to exercise enforcement discretion on the sale and distribution of such products.
  • In 2020 FDA sent warning letters to several companies regarding the use of NAC in dietary supplements. In the letters, FDA warned against the use of drug claims, but also noted that NAC could not be marketed as a dietary supplement because there was no evidence that NAC had been marketed as a food or dietary supplement prior to its approval as a drug in 1963. More recently, we reported that FDA had confirmed in response to citizen petitions that NAC is excluded from the definition of a dietary supplement. FDA had not yet reached a decision, however, regarding a petitioner’s request to issue a regulation that would permit the use of NAC in dietary supplements.
NB: NAC supplements are not available on Amazon US. You can still buy NAC Supplements from iHerb.com.


8. Probiotics - Anti-inflammatory

Probiotics are living non-pathogenic microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, can have a positive impact on health. Bacteria in the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genera, as well as Streptococcus thermophiles and Saccharomyces boulardii, are examples of common probiotics (Ref).

You can find a list of 16 published clinical studies (7 RCTs) on probiotics and COVID-19 from c19probiotics.com (constantly updated). 


Similarly, in terms of early treatment, the effectiveness is not as impressive as the other natural alternatives i.e. quercetin, black seed oil and vitamin A; with an average improvement of more than 50%.

9. Lactoferrin - Anti-viral

Summary results of 4 Lactoferrin and COVID-19 studies are available on this dedicated webpage: https://c19early.com/lf .


Retrospective late treatment study of 547 hospitalized COVID+ patients in Egypt, showed a 79% lower risk of death with lactoferrin treatment as compared to control.

Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein made by cells such as those in secretory glands and activated neutrophils (a type of immune cell). It is found in most bodily fluids, including tears and breast milk, and lactoferrin derived from bovine whey is frequently used in supplements (Ref). Lactoferrin is an immune modulator, capable of enhancing antimicrobial immune activity while reducing inflammation, and has exhibited a broad spectrum of activity against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses (Ref). Laboratory research also suggested lactoferrin may inhibit entry of a highly infectious respiratory virus into cells by blocking its interactions with cell membrane components (Ref).

Lactoferrin may slow pathogen multiplication through its iron binding capacity. While iron is required for DNA replication and energy production, the presence of excess iron increases free radical generation, stimulates inflammatory processes, and exacerbates viral infection by promoting increased viral replication (Ref). Furthermore, patients with a severe acute viral respiratory infection have been found to have elevated levels of ferritin, and these levels correlated with increased risk of death (Ref). In its iron-free state (apolactoferrin), lactoferrin can sequester pro-oxidant free iron, lowering oxidative stress and suppressing the growth of pathogens, and possibly mitigating the serious complications of infection (Ref).

10. Other Potential Treatments

For a list of COVID-19 early treatment studies, check out c19early.com (constantly updated).


Quercetin, Vitamin C, D, Zinc, Black Seed Oil, Melatonin and the FLCCC Protocol

So how do we combine multiple treatments together? Most of the treatments above are part of the FLCCC I-MASK+ prevention and early treatment protocols.
 
For updated prevention and early outpatient protocol  for COVID-19 positive, please check out FLCCC I-MASK+ protocol.
 
Most of the treatments above are also part of the Zelenko ProtocolIn an effort to make it easier for patients, Dr Zelenko has developed an oral supplement that contains all four key ingredients: vitamin C, quercetin, vitamin D3 and zinc. It’s referred to as 'Z-Stack Supplement'.


Take Home Message

In summary, when used early and in combination; all these treatments can be a true game-changer when it comes to fighting COVID-19.

The combination of nutraceuticals alone i.e. quercetin, zinc, vitamin D, vitamin C, black seed oil and melatonin offer a high virus inhibiting and anti-inflammatory potential with a valuable degree of safety at a time of great uncertainty.

Quercetin, zinc, vitamin D and C are part of the FLCCC I-MASK+ protocol and Zelenko Protocol.

However, if your risk is high e.g. age above 60, hypertensive, diabetic and obese; you might wish to consult a doctor and discuss more potent alternatives in the FLCCC I-MASK+ protocol.

Keep in mind that you should never attempt to self medicate without the guidance of a licensed medical provider. If you are not a medical doctor, you are likely to find the information above overwhelming. 
Please also follow other precautions and measures (as advised by your local health authorities and doctors) in order to minimize your risk.

Treatments do not replace vaccines and other measures. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Elimination is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all variants.



Z-Stack Supplement

In an effort to make it easier for patients, Dr Zelenko has developed an oral supplement that contains all four key ingredients: vitamin C, quercetin, vitamin D3 and zinc. It’s referred to as 'Z-Stack Supplement'. 

Z Stack Ingredients

Z-Stack Vitamin cocktail provides key ingredients needed in order to help your body fight off this deadly invader. The Z-Stack Vitamins are Kosher certified, GMP certified and made in the USA.

The cost of the Z-STACK vitamin cocktail is $55 per bottle for a one month supply. 

Where to buy Z-Stack: Z-stack is available on Dr Zelenko's website. Here is the link: Z Stack Supplement 

Note: To get 5% OFF, please use this coupon code: DRFRANCIS


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